Welspun India Ltd.
You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
ISIN No INE192B01031 52Wk High (Rs.) 78 BV (Rs.) 25.93 FV (Rs.) 1.00
Bookclosure 29/06/2018 52Wk Low (Rs.) 46 EPS (Rs.) 3.83 P/E (X) 13.73
Mkt Cap. (Rs. Cr.) 5,284.85 P/BV (X) 2.03 Div Yield (%) 1.24 Mkt Lot 1
2018-03

1. Significant Accounting Policies

This Note provides a list of the significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these financial statements. These policies have been consistently applied to all the years presented, unless otherwise stated.

1.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

The standalone financial statements has been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (the Act) [Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015] (as amended from time to time). The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual and going concern basis. The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for certain assets and liabilities that is measured at fair value as stated in subsequent policies.

1.2 Foreign currency translation

a. Functional and presentation currency

The financial statements of the Company are presented in INR, which is also its functional currency and all items included in the financial statements of the Company are measured using the same functional currency.

b. Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated and recorded into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at year end exchange rates are generally recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss. They are deferred in equity if they relate to qualifying cash flow hedges.

Foreign exchange differences regarded as an adjustment to borrowing costs are presented in the Statement of Profit and Loss, within finance costs. All other foreign exchange gains and losses are presented in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a net basis within other expenses or other income, as applicable.

Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions. Nonmonetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is determined. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e., translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognized in OCI or profit or loss are also recognized in OCI or profit or loss, respectively).

1.3 Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Group and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government.

The specific revenue recognition criteria described below must also be met before revenue is recognized:

Sale of Goods

The Company recognizes revenue from sale of goods when:

a. the Company has transferred to the buyer the significant risk and reward of ownership of goods;

b. the Company retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with the ownership nor effective control over the goods sold;

c. the amount of revenue can be reliably measured;

d. it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company

e. the cost incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably

Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates.

Export Incentives

In case of sale made by the Company as Support Manufacturer, export benefits arising from Duty Entitlement Pass Book (DEPB), Duty Drawback scheme, Merchandise Export Incentive Scheme and Focus Market Scheme are recognised on post export basis at the rate at which the entitlements accrue and is included in the ‘Other Operating Revenue’.

Rendering of service

Revenue from rendering of services is recognized when the performance of agreed contractual task has been completed.

Interest Income

Interest income from the financial assets are recognized using effective interest rate method.

Other Income

Other income is accounted for on accrual basis except where the receipt of income is uncertain.

1.4 Government grants

Grants from the government are recognized at their fair value where there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and the Company will comply with all attached conditions. Grants related to assets are government grants whose primary condition is that an entity qualifying for them should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire long-term assets. Grants related to income are government grants other than those related to assets.

Government grants relating to an expense item are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss over the period necessary to match them with the costs that they are intended to compensate and presented either under “other operating income” or are deducted in reporting the related expense. The presentation approach is applied consistently to all similar grants. Government grants relating to the purchase of property, plant and equipment are included in liabilities as deferred income and are credited to Statement of Profit and Loss over the periods and in proportions in which depreciation expense on those assets is recognized.

1.5 Income Tax

The income tax expense or credit for the year is the tax payable on the current year’s taxable income based on the applicable income tax rate adjusted by changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities attributable to temporary differences and to unused tax losses. Current and deferred tax is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss except to the extent it relates to items recognized directly in equity or other comprehensive income, in which case it is recognized in equity or other comprehensive income respectively.

Current income tax

Current tax charge is based on taxable profit for the year. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted, at the reporting date where the Company operates and generates taxable income. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulation is subject to interpretation. It establishes provisions where appropriate on the basis of amounts expected to be paid to the tax authorities. Current tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date. Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable income will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, unused tax losses, depreciation carry-forwards and unused tax credits could be utilized.

Deferred income tax is not accounted for if it arises from initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction other than a business combination that at the time of the transaction affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured based on the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect changes in probability that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are off-set against each other and the resultant net amount is presented in the Balance Sheet, if and only when, (a) the Company has a legally enforceable right to setoff the current income tax assets and liabilities, and (b) the Deferred income tax assets and liabilities relate to income tax levied by the same taxation authority.

Deferred tax assets are not recognized for temporary differences between the carrying amount and tax bases of investments in subsidiaries where it is not probable that the differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will not be available against which the temporary difference can be utilized.

Minimum Alternate Tax (‘MAT’) credit entitlement is recognized as a deferred tax asset if it is probable that MAT credit will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will be available against which the deferred tax asset can be utilised.

Dividend distribution tax paid on the dividends is recognised consistently with the presentation of the transaction that creates the income tax consequence.

1.6 Exceptional items

Exceptional items comprise items of income and expense, including tax items, that are material in amount and unlikely to recur and which merit separate disclosure in order to provide an understanding of the Company’s underlying financial performance.

1.7 Leases

As a lessee

Leases of property, plant and equipment where the Company, as lessee, has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Finance leases are capitalised at the lease’s inception at the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding rental obligations, net of finance charges, are included in borrowings or other financial liabilities as appropriate. Each lease payment is allocated between the liability and finance cost. The finance cost is charged to the profit or loss over the lease period so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability for each period.

Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are not transferred to the company as lessee are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases (net of any incentives received from the lessor) are charged to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease unless the payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases.

As a lessor

Lease income from operating leases where the Company is a lessor is recognised in income on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless the receipts are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the expected inflationary cost increases. The respective leased assets are included in the balance sheet based on their nature.

1.8 Property, plant and equipment

Property Plant and equipment except for freehold land are stated in the balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of property plant and equipment comprises its purchase price net of any trade discounts and rebates, any import duties and other taxes(other than those subsequently recoverable from the tax authorities), any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use, including relevant borrowing costs for qualifying assets and any expected cost of decommissioning. Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as a separate asset is derecognised when replaced. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to statement of profit and loss during the reporting period in which they are incurred. The company has elected to continue with the carrying value for all of its property plant and equipment as recognized in the financial statements on transition to Ind AS, measured as per the previous GAAP and use that as its deemed cost.

Depreciation methods, estimated useful lives and residual value

Freehold land is not depreciated. Leasehold improvements are amortised over the shorter of estimated useful life or the related lease term. The property, plant and equipment acquired under finance leases is depreciated over the asset’s useful life or over the shorter of the asset’s useful life and the lease term if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership at the end of the lease term.

For following items of property, plant and equipment, depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method to allocate their cost, net of their residual values, over their estimated useful lives as follows:

Plant and Machinery (except electrical installation) is depreciated on written down value method over the useful life ranging between 7.5 years to 18 years.

The useful lives have been determined based on technical evaluation done by the management’s expert which is equal to or lower than those specified by Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013, in order to reflect the actual usage of the assets. The residual values are not more than 5% of the original cost of the asset. The assets’residual values and useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, at the end of each reporting period.

Estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation methods are reviewed annually, taking into account commercial and technological obsolescence as well as normal wear and tear and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of asset. Gains and losses on disposals are determined by comparing proceeds with carrying amount. These are included in statement of profit and loss within other expenses or other income, as applicable.

1.9 Intangible assets

Intangible assets with finite useful lives acquired by the Company are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Amortization is charged on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortization method are reviewed at the end of each annual reporting period, with the effect of any changes in the estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.

Amortisation methods and periods

Intangible assets comprise of computer software which is amortized on a straight-line basis over its expected useful life over a period of five years.

1.10 Impairment of non-financial assets

Intangible assets that have an indefinite useful life are not subject to amortization and are tested annually for impairment, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that they might be impaired. Other assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognised for the amount by which the asset’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash inflows which are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets (cash-generating units). Non-financial assets other than goodwill that suffered an impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at the end of each reporting period.

1.11 Inventories Raw materials and stores, work in progress, traded and finished goods

Raw materials and stores, work in progress, traded and finished goods are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of raw materials and traded goods comprises cost of purchases on weighted average basis. Cost of work-in progress and finished goods comprises direct materials, direct labour and an appropriate proportion of variable and fixed overhead expenditure, the latter being allocated on the basis of normal operating capacity. Cost of inventories also include all other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs are assigned to individual items of inventory moving weighted average basis. Costs of purchased inventory are determined after deducting rebates and discounts. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

1.12 Investment in compound financial instruments issued by subsidiary

Company considers issuance of non-market rate redeemable preference shares by subsidiary as compound instrument comprising a loan with market terms and a capital injection and hence treat the difference between the cash paid and fair value on initial recognition as an addition to the investment in the subsidiary and presented separately as ‘Equity component of Preference shares’under ‘Investment in subsidiaries’. Equity component is not subsequently re-measured.

1.13 Financial Instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

Financial Assets A. Classification

The Company classifies its financial assets in the following measurement categories:

- those to be measured subsequently at fair value (either through other comprehensive income, or through profit or loss), and

- those measured at amortised cost.

The classification depends on the entity’s business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of the cash flows.

- For assets measured at fair value, gains and losses will either be recorded in profit or loss or other comprehensive income;

- For investments in debt instruments, this will depend on the business model in which the investment is held;

- For investments in equity instruments, this will depend on whether the Company has made an irrevocable election at the time of initial recognition to account for the equity investment at fair value through other comprehensive income.

The Company reclassifies debt investments when and only when its business model for managing those assets changes.

B. Initial Recognition and Measurement

At initial recognition, the Company measures a financial asset at its fair value plus, in the case of a financial asset not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Transaction costs of financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss are expensed in Statement of Profit or Loss.

C. Subsequent Measurement Debt Instruments

Subsequent measurement of debt instruments depends on the Company’s business model for managing the asset and the cash flow characteristics of the asset. There are three measurement categories into which the Company classifies its debt instruments:

i. Amortised cost: Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows where those cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest are measured at amortised cost. A gain or loss on such assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost and is not part of a hedging relationship is recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised or impaired. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income using the effective interest rate method.

ii. Fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI): Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows and for selling the financial assets, where the assets’cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest, are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI). Movements in the carrying amount are taken through OCI, except for the recognition of impairment gains or losses, interest income and foreign exchange gains and losses which are recognised in profit and loss. When the financial asset is derecognised, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from equity to profit or loss and recognised in other expenses or other incomes, as applicable. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income using the effective interest rate method.

iii. Fair value through profit or loss: A financial asset which is not classified in any of the above categories are measured at Fair value through profit or loss.

Equity Investments

Investment in subsidiaries are carried at cost in the separate financial statements.

The Company subsequently measures all other equity investments at fair value. Where the Company’s management has elected to present fair value gains and losses on equity investments in other comprehensive income, there will be no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to profit or loss. Dividends from such investments are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as other income when the Company’s right to receive payments is established. Changes in the fair value of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Impairment losses (and reversal of impairment losses) on equity investments measured at FVOCI are not reported separately from other changes in fair value.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents includes cash in hand, deposits held with banks, other short term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. For the purpose of statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents includes outstanding bank overdraft shown within current liabilities in statement of financial position and which are considered as integral part of company’s cash management policy.

Trade receivable

Trade receivable are recognised initially at their fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less provision for impairment.

D. Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:

i. Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance;

ii. Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 18.

ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss. This amount is reflected under the head ‘other expenses’in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:

- Financial assets measured as at amortised cost, contractual revenue receivables: ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount;

- For trade receivables only, the Company applies the simplified approach permitted by Ind AS 109 financial instruments, which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised from initial recognition of the receivables.

E. Derecognition of financial assets

A financial asset is derecognised only when

- The Company has transferred the rights to receive cash flows from the financial asset or

- retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows to one or more recipients.

Where the entity has transferred an asset, the Company evaluates whether it has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset. In such cases, the financial asset is derecognised. Where the entity has not transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the financial asset is not derecognised. Where the entity has neither transferred a financial asset nor retains substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the financial asset is derecognised if the Company has not retained control of the financial asset. Where the Company retains control of the financial asset, the asset is continued to be recognised to the extent of continuing involvement in the financial asset.

F. Income recognition

a. Interest income

Interest income from debt instruments is recognised using the effective interest rate method. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to the gross carrying amount of a financial asset. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses.

b. Dividends

Dividends are recognised in profit or loss only when the right to receive payment is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the Company, and the amount of the dividend can be measured reliably.

Financial liabilities

A. Initial Recognition and Measurement:

Financial liabilities are initially recognised at fair value, reduced by transaction costs (in case of financial liability not at fair value through profit or loss), that are directly attributable to the issue of financial liability. After initial recognition, financial liabilities are measured at amortised cost using effective interest method. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash outflow (including all fees paid, transaction cost, and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial liability, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition. At the time of initial recognition, there is no financial liability irrevocably designated as measured at fair value through profit or loss. Liabilities from finance lease agreements are measured at the lower of fair value of the leased asset or present value of minimum lease payments.

B. Subsequent Measurement Borrowings

Borrowings are initially recognised at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption amount is recognised in profit or loss over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method. Fees paid on the establishment of loan facilities are recognised as transaction costs of the loan to the extent that it is probable that some or all of the facility will be drawn down. In this case, the fee is deferred until the draw down occurs. To the extent there is no evidence that it is probable that some or all of the facility will be drawn down, the fee is capitalised as a prepayment for liquidity services and amortised over the period of the facility to which it relates.

Borrowings are removed from the balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expired. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognised in Statement of profit and loss.

Where the terms of a financial liability are renegotiated and the entity issues equity instruments to a creditor to extinguish all or part of the liability (debt for equity swap), a gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss, which is measured as the difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability and the fair value of the equity instruments issued.

Where there is a breach of a material provision of a long-term loan arrangement on or before the end of the reporting period with the effect that the liability becomes payable on demand on the reporting date, the entity does not classify the liability as current, if the lender agreed, after the reporting period and before the approval of the financial statements for issue, not to demand payment as a consequence of the breach.

Trade and other payables

These amounts represent liabilities for goods and services provided to the Company prior to the end of financial year which are unpaid. Trade and other payables are recognised, initially at fair value, and subsequently measured at amortised cost using effective interest rate method.

Financial guarantee contracts

Financial guarantee contracts are recognised as a financial liability at the time the guarantee is issued. The liability is initially measured at fair value and subsequently at the higher of the amount determined in accordance with Ind AS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets and the amount initially recognised less cumulative amortization, where appropriate.

Derivatives and hedging activities

In order to hedge its exposure to foreign exchange, interest rate, and commodity price risks, the Company enters into forward, option, swap contracts and other derivative financial instruments. The Company does not hold derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.

Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period.

- Derivatives that are not designated as hedges

The Company enters into derivative contracts to hedge risks which are not designated as hedges. Such contracts are accounted for at fair value through profit or loss.

Embedded Derivatives

Derivatives embedded in a host contract that is an asset within the scope of Ind AS 109 are not separated. Financial assets with embedded derivatives are considered in their entirety when determining whether their cash flows are solely payment of principal and interest. Derivatives embedded in all other host contract are separated only if the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative are not closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host and are measured at fair value through profit or loss. Embedded derivatives closely related to the host contracts are not separated.

Embedded foreign currency derivatives

Embedded foreign currency derivatives are not separated from the host contract if they are closely related. Such embedded derivatives are closely related to the host contract, if the host contract is not leveraged, does not contain any option feature and requires payments in one of the following currencies:

i. the functional currency of any substantial party to that contract;

ii. the currency in which the price of the related good or service that is acquired or delivered is routinely denominated in commercial transactions around the world;

iii. a currency that is commonly used in contracts to purchase or sell non-financial items in the economic environment in which the transaction takes place (i.e. relatively liquid and stable currency).

Foreign currency embedded derivatives which do not meet the above criteria are separated and the derivative is accounted for at fair value through profit and loss. The Company currently does not have any such derivatives which are not closely related.

C. Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the de-recognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit or loss.

Offsetting financial instruments

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet where there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. The legally enforceable right must not be contingent on future events and must be enforceable in the normal course of business and in the event of default, insolvency or bankruptcy of the Company or the counterparty.

1.14 Borrowing costs

General and specific borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalised during the period of time that is required to complete and prepare the asset for its intended use or sale. Qualifying assets are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale. Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation. Other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

1.15 Employee benefits

a. Short-term obligations

Liabilities for wages and salaries, including non-monetary benefits that are expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are recognised in respect of employees’services up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the amounts expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are presented as current employee benefit obligations in the balance sheet.

b. Other long-term employee benefit obligations

The liabilities for earned leave are not expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service. They are therefore measured as the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the reporting period using the projected unit credit method. The benefits are discounted using the market yields at the end of the reporting period that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation. Remeasurements as a result of experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in profit or loss. The obligations are presented as current liabilities in the balance sheet if the entity does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement for at least twelve months after the reporting period, regardless of when the actual settlement is expected to occur.

c. Post-employment obligations

The Company operates the following postemployment schemes:

- defined benefit plans such as gratuity, and

- defined contribution plans such as provident fund and superannuation Fund

Defined Benefit Plans

Gratuity obligations

The liability or asset recognised in the balance sheet in respect of defined benefit gratuity plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by actuaries using the projected unit credit method.

The present value of the defined benefit obligation denominated in INR is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation. The benefits which are denominated in currency other than INR, the cash flows are discounted using market yields determined by reference to high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid, and that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation.

The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in the period in which they occur, directly in other comprehensive income. They are included in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity and in the balance sheet. Remeasurements are not reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the subsequent periods.

Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognised immediately in Statement of Profit or Loss as past service cost.

Defined contribution plans Provident Fund, Employee State Insurance Corporation (ESIC), Pension Fund and other Social Security Funds

The Contribution towards provident fund, ESIC, pension fund and Social Security Funds for certain employees is made to the regulatory authorities where the Company has no further obligations. Such benefits are classified as Defined Contribution Schemes as the Company does not carry any further obligations apart from the contributions made on a monthly basis.

Superannuation Fund

Contribution towards superannuation fund for certain employees is made to SBI Life Insurance Company where the Company has no further obligations. Such benefits are classified as Defined Contribution Schemes as the Company does not carry any further obligations, apart from contribution made on monthly basis.

Bonus Plan

The Company recognises a liability and an expense for bonuses. The Company recognises a provision where contractually obliged or where there is a past practice that has created a constructive obligation.

1.16 Provisions and contingent liabilities

Provisions for legal claims, service warranties, volume discounts and returns are recognised when the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the amount can be reliably estimated. Provisions are not recognised for future operating losses. Provisions for restructuring are recognised by the Company when it has developed a detailed formal plan for restructuring and has raised a valid expectation in those affected that the Company will carry out the restructuring by starting to implement the plan or announcing its main features to those affected by it.

Where there are a number of similar obligations, the likelihood that an outflow will be required in settlement is determined by considering the class of obligations as a whole. A provision is recognised even if the likelihood of an outflow with respect to any one item included in the same class of obligations may be small. Provisions are measured at the present value of management’s best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period. The discount rate used to determine the present value is a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as interest expense.

The measurement of provision for restructuring includes only direct expenditures arising from the restructuring, which are both necessarily entailed by the restructuring and not associated with the ongoing activities of the Company.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the company or a present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made.

Contingent Assets are disclosed, where an inflow of economic benefits is probable.

1.17 Contributed Equity

Equity shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.

1.18 Dividends

Provision is made for the amount of any dividend declared, being appropriately authorised and no longer at the discretion of the entity, on or before the end of the reporting period but not distributed at the end of the reporting period.

1.19 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing:

- the profit attributable to owners of the Company

- by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the financial year, adjusted for bonus elements in equity shares issued during the year and excluding treasury shares. (Note 33)

Diluted earnings per share

Diluted earnings per share adjusts the figures used in the determination of basic earnings per share to take into account:

- the after income tax effect of interest and other financing costs associated with dilutive potential equity shares, and

- the weighted average number of additional equity shares that would have been outstanding assuming the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.

1.20 Current versus non-current classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:

- Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle

- Held primarily for the purpose of trading

- Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is current when:

- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle

- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading

- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period

The company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents. The company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.

1.21 Rounding of amounts

All amounts disclosed in the financial statements and notes have been rounded off to the nearest millions with two decimal as per the requirement of Schedule III, unless otherwise stated.

1.22 Following are the amendments to existing standards which have been issued by The Ministry of Corporate Affairs (‘MCA’) that are not effective for the reporting period and have not been early adopted by the Company:

a. Issue of Ind AS 115 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers

Ind AS 115 will supersede the current revenue recognition guidance including Ind AS 18 Revenue, Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts and the related interpretations. Ind AS 115 provides a single model of accounting revenue arising from contracts with customers based on the identification and satisfaction of performance obligations.

b. Amendment to existing issued Ind AS

The MCA has also carried out amendments of the following accounting standards, applicable to the Company:

i. Ind AS 21 - The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates;

ii. Ind AS 12 - Income Taxes

Application of above standards are not expected to have any significant impact on the Company’s Financial Statements.

1.23 Critical estimates and judgements

The preparation of financial statements requires the use of accounting estimates which, by definition, will seldom equal the actual results. Management also needs to exercise judgement in applying the Company’s accounting policies. This note provides an overview of the areas that involved a higher degree of judgement or complexity, and of items which are more likely to be materially adjusted due to estimates and assumptions turning out to be different than those originally assessed. Detailed information about each of these estimates and judgements is included in relevant notes together with information about the basis of calculation for each affected line item in the financial statements

Critical estimates and judgements

i) Estimation of current tax expense and deferred tax

The calculation of the Company’s tax charge necessarily involves a degree of estimation and judgement in respect of certain items whose tax treatment cannot be finally determined until resolution has been reached with the relevant tax authority or, as appropriate, through a formal legal process. The final resolution of some of these items may give rise to material profits/losses and/ or cash flows. Significant judgments are involved in determining the provision for income taxes, including amount expected to be paid/recovered for uncertain tax positions. (Refer Note 25)

Recognition of deferred tax assets/ liabilities

The recognition of deferred tax assets/ liabilities is based upon whether it is more likely than not that sufficient and suitable taxable profits will be available in the future against which the reversal of temporary differences can be deducted. To determine the future taxable profits, reference is made to the latest available profit forecasts. (Refer Note 14).

ii) Estimation of Provisions & Contingent Liabilities.

The Company exercises judgement in measuring and recognising provisions and the exposures to contingent liabilities which is related to pending litigation or other outstanding claims. Judgement is necessary in assessing the likelihood that a pending claim will succeed, or a liability will arise, and to quantify the possible range of the financial settlement. Because of the inherent uncertainty in this evaluation process, actual liability may be different from the originally estimated as provision. (Refer Note 30).

iii) Estimated useful life of Property, Plant and Equipment

Property, Plant and Equipment represent a significant proportion of the asset base of the Company. The charge in respect of periodic depreciation is derived after determining an estimate of an asset’s expected useful life and the expected residual value at the end of its life. The useful lives and residual values of Company’s assets are determined by management at the time the asset is acquired and reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end. The lives are based on historical experience with similar assets as well as anticipation of future events, which may impact their life, such as changes in technology. For the relative size of the Company’s property, plant and equipment and intangible assets (Refer Notes 3 and 4).

iv) Estimation of Provision for Inventory

The Company writes down inventories to net realisable value based on an estimate of the realisability of inventories. Write downs on inventories are recorded where events or changes in circumstances indicate that the balances may not realised. The identification of write-downs requires the use of estimates of net selling prices of the down-graded inventories. Where the expectation is different from the original estimate, such difference will impact the carrying value of inventories and write-downs of inventories in the periods in which such estimate has been changed. Refer Note 8 for details of inventory and provisions.

v) Estimation of Impairment for equity Investments in Subsidiaries

To test the impairment of equity investment in one of subsidiaries, market related information and estimates are used to determine the recoverable amount. Key assumptions on which management has based its determination of recoverable amount include estimated long term growth rates, weighted average cost of capital and estimated operating margins. Cash flow projections take into account past experience and represent management’s best estimate about future developments. Changes in the assumptions selected by management, in particular the discount rate and growth rate assumptions used in the cash flow projections, could significantly affect the Company’s impairment evaluation and hence results.

vi) Estimation of Defined Benefit Obligation

The present value of the defined benefit obligations depends on a number of factors that are determined on an actuarial basis using a number of assumptions. The assumptions used in determining the net cost (income) for post employments plans include the discount rate. Any changes in these assumptions will impact the carrying amount of such obligations.

The Company determines the appropriate discount rate at the end of each year. This is the interest rate that should be used to determine the present value of estimated future cash outflows expected to be required to settle the defined benefit obligations. In determining the appropriate discount rate, the Company considers the interest rates of government bonds of maturity approximating the terms of the related plan liability. Refer Note 20 for the details of the assumptions used in estimating the defined benefit obligation.

vii) Estimation of grant income

The company has accrued income for Government grant related to fixed assets, in the ratio of related expenses, based on eligibility amount. Estimates are involved in calculation of grant income where the eligibility amount is not confirmed by the government but application is made and the Company is complying all terms & conditions for eligibility

viii) Estimated fair value of Financial Instruments.

The fair value of financial instruments that are not traded in an active market is determined using valuation techniques. The Management uses its judgement to select a variety of methods and make assumptions that are mainly based on market conditions existing at the end of each reporting period. For details of the key assumptions used and the impact of changes to these assumptions see Note 26.

ix) Exceptional items

Exceptional items are expense items recorded in the year in which they have been determined by management as being material by their size or incidence and are presented separately within the results of the Company. The determination of which items are disclosed as exceptional items will affect the presentation of profit for the year and requires a degree of judgement. Details relating to exceptional items reported during the year are set out in Note 24.