Advanced Enzyme Technologies Ltd.
You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
ISIN No INE837H01020 52Wk High (Rs.) 263 BV (Rs.) 50.08 FV (Rs.) 2.00
Bookclosure 14/09/2018 52Wk Low (Rs.) 145 EPS (Rs.) 8.07 P/E (X) 22.17
Mkt Cap. (Rs. Cr.) 1,996.28 P/BV (X) 3.57 Div Yield (%) 0.04 Mkt Lot 1
2018-03

1 Overview of the Company

Advanced Enzyme Technologies Limited ('the Company') was incorporated on 15 March 1989 under the provisions of Companies Act, 1956. The Company is engaged in the business of manufacturing and sales of enzymes. The equity shares of the Company were listed on National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NsE) via id ADVENZYMES and on BSE Limited (BSE) via Id 540025 on 1 August 2016. The registered office of the company is Sun Magnetica, A wing, 5th Floor, Near LIC Service Road, Louiswadi, Thane (W), Maharashtra - 400604

2 Basis of preparation of financial statements

"The Financial Statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) to comply with the Section 133 of the Companies Act 2013 ("the 2013 Act"), read with Rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rule 2015, and Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2016. For all periods up to and for the year ended 31 March 2017, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with accounting standards notified under the section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2016 (Indian GAAP). These financial statements are the Company's first Ind AS financial statements and are covered by Ind AS 101, First-time adoption of Indian Accounting Standards. The transition to Ind AS has been carried out from the accounting principles generally accepted in India ("Indian GAAP") which is considered as the "Previous GAAP" for purposes of Ind AS 101. The financial statements were authorised for issue by the Company's Board of Directors on 19 May 2018.

All the assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company's normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in Schedule III to the Act. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalent, the Company has ascertained the operating cycle to be 12 months.

Functional and presentation currency:

These Standalone financial statements are presented in Indian rupees, which is the Company's functional currency. All amounts have been rounded off to two decimal places to the nearest million, unless otherwise indicated.

Historical cost convention:

The Standalone financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for the following:

- certain financial assets and liabilities (including derivative instrument) that are measured at fair value;

- defined benefit plans - plan assets measured at fair value"

3 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires the management to make use of judgements, estimates and assumptions, that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenue and expenses and disclosure of contingent liabilities. The estimates and assumptions used in accompanying financial statements are based upon management's evaluation of the relevant facts and circumstances as of the date of the financial statements. Actual results may differ from the estimates and assumptions used in preparing the accompanying standalone financial statements and reviewed on an on-going basis. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognized prospectively in current and future periods.

Assumptions and estimation uncertainties that have a significant risk of resulting in a material adjustment in the year ended 31 March 2018 are as follows:

a. Property, plant and equipment

Determination of the estimated useful lives of tangible assets and the assessment as to which components of the cost may be capitalised. Useful lives of tangible assets are based on the life prescribed in Schedule II of the Act. In cases, where the useful lives are different from that prescribed in Schedule II, they are based on technical advice, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset, the operating conditions of the asset, past history of replacement, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers' warranties and maintenance support.

b. Recognition and measurement of defined benefit obligations

The obligation arising from defined benefit plan is determined on the basis of actuarial assumptions. Key actuarial assumptions include discount rate, trends in salary escalation, actuarial rates and life expectancy. The discount rate is determined by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds. The period to maturity of the underlying bonds correspond to the probable maturity of the post-employment benefit obligations.

c. Recognition of deferred tax assets

Deferred tax assets are recognised for the future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, and unutilised business loss and depreciation carry-forwards and tax credits. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that future taxable income will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, unused tax losses, depreciation carry-forwards and unused tax credits could be utilised.

d. Recognition and measurement of other provisions

The recognition and measurement of other provisions are based on the assessment of the probability of an outflow of resources, and on past experience and circumstances known at the balance sheet date. The actual outflow of resources at a future date may therefore vary from the amount included in other provisions.

e. Discounting of long-term financial assets / liabilities

All financial assets / liabilities are required to be measured at fair value on initial recognition. In case of financial liabilities/assets which are required to subsequently be measured at amortised cost, interest is accrued using the effective interest method.

f. Segment reporting

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting. The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.

g. Fair value of financial instruments

Derivatives are carried at fair value. Derivatives includes foreign currency forward contracts. Fair value of foreign currency forward contracts are determined using the fair value reports provided by respective merchant bankers.

h. Measurement of fair values

The Company's accounting policies and disclosures require the measurement of fair values, for both financial and non-financial assets and liabilities.

The Company has an established control framework with respect to the measurement of fair values, which includes overseeing all significant fair value measurements, including Level 3 fair values by the management. The management regularly reviews significant unobservable inputs and valuation adjustments. If third party information, such as broker quotes or pricing services, is used to measure fair values, then the management assesses the evidence obtained from the third parties to support the conclusion that such valuations meet the requirements of Ind AS, including the level in the fair value hierarchy in which such valuations should be classified.

When measuring the fair value of a financial asset or a financial liability, the Company uses observable market data as far as possible. Fair values are categorised into different levels in a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the valuation techniques as follows.

- Level 1: quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

- Level 2: inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices).

- Level 3: inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).

If the inputs used to measure the fair value of an asset or a liability fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy, then the fair value measurement is categorised in its entirety in the same level of the fair value hierarchy as the lowest level input that is significant to the entire measurement. The Company recognises transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy at the end of the reporting period during which the change has occurred.

3A Standards issued but not yet effective

Ministry of Corporate Affairs ("MCA"), on 28 March 2018, through Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 has notified the new standard for revenue recognition and amended certain existing Ind ASs which are effective for annual periods beginning on or after

1 April 2018

Ind AS 115- Revenue from Contract with Customers:

Ind AS 115 will supersede the existing revenue recognition standard 'Ind AS 18 - Revenue'. The core principle of the new standard is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Further the new standard requires enhanced disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from the entity's contracts with customers. The Company is evalvating the requirements of the Ind AS 115 including its effect on the standalone financial statements.

Ind AS 21- The effect of changes in Foreign exchange rates

The amendment clarifies on the accounting of transactions that include the receipt or payment of advance consideration in a foreign currency. The appendix explains that the date of the transaction, for the purpose of determining the exchange rate, is the date of initial recognition of the nonmonetary asset or non-monetary liability arising from the payment or receipt of advance consideration.

The amendment will come into force from 1 April 2018. The Company does not expect the effect of this on the standalone financial statements to be material based on preliminary evaluation.

4 Significant accounting policies:

The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to the periods presented in the financial statements.

a. Revenue recognition

i. Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

ii. Sale of goods is recognized as revenue when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer. Revenues are recognized when collectability of the resulting receivable is reasonably assured. Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates. Sales are inclusive of excise duty and net of sales tax, goods and service tax (GST) and discounts.

iii. Export incentives received pursuant to the Duty Drawback Scheme and Merchandise Export from India Scheme are accounted on an accrual basis, to the extent it is probable that realization is certain.

iv. Interest income is recognized on a time proportionate basis, taking into account the amount outstanding and the rates applicable.

v. Dividend income is recognized when the Company's right to receive dividend is established by the reporting date.

vi. Income from services rendered is recognized based on agreements with the customers using the proportionate completion method, when services are performed and no significant uncertainty exists regarding the amount of the consideration that will be derived from rendering of service. Income is recognized net of taxes, as applicable.

b. Property, plant and equipment and depreciation Recognition and measurement

i. Items of property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Cost includes taxes, non-refundable duties and taxes, freight and other incidental expenses directly related to acquisition/construction and installation of the assets. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving the purchase price. Interest on borrowings to finance acquisition of fixed assets during qualifying period is capitalized.

ii. Leasehold improvements represent expenses incurred towards civil work and interior furnishings on the leased premises.

iii. An asset is eliminated from the financial statements on disposal or when no further benefit is expected from its use and disposal. Gains / losses arising from disposal of fixed assets carried at cost are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

iv. Capital work-in-progress includes assets not ready for their intended use and related incidental expenses and attributable interest.

v. The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all its property, plant and equipment as recognized in the standalone financial statements as at the date of transition to Ind AS, measured as per the previous GAAP and use that as the deemed cost as at the transition date pursuant to the exemption under Ind AS 101

Subsequent expenditure

vi. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company

Depreciation

vii. Depreciation on tangible fixed assets other than plant and equipment has been provided on Written Down Value method and on plant and equipment on Straight Line Method. Depreciation is provided on a pro-rata basis, i.e. from the date on which asset is ready for use.

Depreciation method, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each financial year-end and adjusted if appropriate.

viii. Leasehold improvements and leasehold land are amortized over the unexpired primary period of lease except for lease hold land acquired under perpetual lease.

ix. The Company has reviewed its policy for providing depreciation on its tangible assets and has also reassessed their useful lives as per Part C of Schedule II of the Act. The revised useful lives, as assessed by the management, match those specified in Part C of Schedule II of the Act, for all classes of tangible assets.

c. Intangible assets

i. Intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

ii. Costs relating to acquisition of technical knowhow and software are capitalized as intangible assets. Further, the expenditure incurred towards product studies during the development of product dossiers are grouped under "Intangible assets under development" to the extent such expenditure meet the criteria of intangible asset.

iii. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates

iv. An intangible asset is eliminated from the financial statements on disposal or when no further benefit is expected from its use and disposal. Gains / losses arising from disposal are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

v. Any expected loss is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

vi. Intangible assets that are ready for use are amortized on a straight line basis over a period of four years.

d. Non-current assets held for sale

Non-current assets classified as held for sale, if it is highly probable that they will be recovered primarily through sale rather than through continuing use. Such assets, are generally measured at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Losses on initial classification as held for sale and subsequent gains and losses on re-measurement are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. Once classified as held-for-sale they are no longer depreciated.

e. Impairment of non-financial assets

The carrying values of assets at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment if any indication of impairment exists.

If the carrying amount of the assets exceed the estimated recoverable amount, an impairment is recognized for such excess amount. The impairment loss is recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless the asset is carried at revalue amount, in which case any impairment loss of the revalued asset is treated as a revaluation decrease to the extent a revaluation reserve is available for that asset.

The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor.

When there is indication that an impairment loss recognized for an asset (other than a revalued asset) in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss, to the extent the amount was previously charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. In case of revalued assets such reversal is not recognized.

f. Foreign currency transactions

i. Initial recognition - Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the functional currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

ii. Subsequent measurement- Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate at the reporting date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate when the fair value was determined. Foreign currency differences are generally recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Non-monetary items that are measured based on historical cost in a foreign currency are not translated.

iii. Exchange differences - All exchange differences arising on settlement/conversion on foreign currency transactions are included in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise.

g. Stock based Compensation:

Employees Stock Option Plans ("ESOPs"):

Equity-settled plans are accounted at fair value as at the grant date. The fair value of the share-based option is determined at the grant date using a market-based option valuation model (Black Scholes Option Valuation Model). The fair value of the option is recorded as compensation expense amortized over the vesting period of the options, with a corresponding increase in Reserves and Surplus under the head ""Employee Stock Option account"". On exercise of the option, the proceeds are recorded as share capital.

The cumulative expense recognized for equity-settled transactions at each reporting date until the vesting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the Company's best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The charge or credit to the Statement of Profit and Loss for a period represents the movement in cumulative expense recognized as at the beginning and end of that period and is recognized in employee benefits expense.

Service and non-market performance conditions are not taken into account when determining the grant date fair value of awards, but the likelihood of the conditions being met is assessed as part of the Company's best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest.

h. Inventories

i. Inventories of raw materials, packing materials, consumables, finished goods and work in process are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value on an item-by-item basis.

ii. Cost of raw materials, consumables and packing materials is determined on first-in-first-out basis except for stock of not ordinarily interchangeable raw materials, which are determined on their specific individual costs. Cost of finished goods and stock in process is determined by considering materials, labour costs, conversion costs, including an appropriate

share of fixed production overheads based on normal operating capacity and other related costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present condition and location. Cost of finished goods and stock in process is determined on weighted average cost method.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. Raw materials and other supplies held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost except in case where material prices have declined and it is estimated that the cost of the finished product will exceed its net realisable value.

i. Employee benefits

Employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of receiving employees services are classified as short-term employee benefits. The short term employee benefits are accounted on undiscounted basis during the accounting period based on services rendered by employees.

i. Defined contribution plans

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which an entity pays specified contributions to a separate entity and has no obligation to pay any further amounts. The Company contributes to statutory provident fund in accordance with Employees' Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 that is a defined contribution plan and contribution paid or payable is recognized as an expense in the period in which the employee renders services.

Superannuation benefits, a defined contribution plan, has been funded with Life Insurance Corporation of India and the contribution is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss, when the contribution to the Fund is due.

ii. Defined benefit plans

The Company provides for Gratuity benefit and Compensated Absences, which are defined benefit plans, covering all its eligible employees. Liability towards gratuity benefits and compensated absences expected to occur after twelve months, are determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method. Actuarial valuations are carried out at the balance sheet date. Remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognised in OCI. The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognized past service cost, and as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. The gratuity benefit and compensated absences scheme is funded with the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC).

The short term provision for compensated absences has been calculated on undiscounted basis, based on the balance of leave available over and above the maximum accumulation allowed as per the Company policy.

j. Income taxes

Income tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income tax law), deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period) and Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credit entitlement.

Current tax

Current income tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Current tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognised in respect of temporary difference between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Deferred tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in Other Comprehensive Income (oCi) or directly in equity.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset only if:

a) The entity has a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities; and

b) The deferred tax assets and the deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on the same taxable entity.

Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Deferred tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity

Minimum Alternate Tax

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) under the provisions of Income Tax Act, 1961 is recognized as deferred tax in the the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company recognizes MAT credit available is recognized as an asset only when it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company i.e. the Company will pay normal income tax during the period for which MAT Credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognizes MAT Credit recognized as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternate Tax under the Income Tax Act, 1961, by way of credit to the Statement of Profit and Loss and shown as "Deferred tax" MAT credit recognized as an asset is reviewed at each balance sheet date and written down to the extent the aforesaid evidence no longer exists.

k. Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs are interest and other costs that the Company incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds and is measured with reference to the Effective Interest Rate (EIR) applicable to the respective borrowing. Borrowing cost include interest costs measured at EIR and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs incurred on constructing or acquiring a qualifying asset are capitalized as cost of that asset until it is ready for its intended use. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are charged to revenue and recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

l. Research and development costs

Research and development costs incurred for development of products are expensed as incurred, except for development costs that relate to the design and testing of new or improved materials, products or processes, which are recognized as an intangible asset to the extent that it is technically feasible to complete the development of such asset and future economic benefits are expected to be generated from such assets. Capital expenditure on research and development is included as part of assets and depreciated on the same basis as other assets.

m. Provisions and contingencies

Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows specific to the liability. The unwinding of the discount is recognised as finance cost. A provision for onerous contracts is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Company recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but will probably not, require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

A contingent asset is not recognised but disclosed in the financial statements where an inflow of economic benefit is probable.

n. Leases

At the inception of a lease, the lease arrangement is classified as either a finance lease or an operating lease, based on the substance of the lease arrangement.

Assets taken on finance lease

A finance lease is recognized as an asset and a liability at the commencement of the lease, at the lower of the fair value of the asset and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Initial direct costs, if any, are also capitalized and, subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to that asset. Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance expense and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance expense is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.

Assets taken on operating lease

Leases other than finance leases are operating leases, and the leased assets are not recognized on the Company's balance sheet. Payments made under operating leases are recognized in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

o. Cash and cash equivalents

Cash comprises of cash at bank and in hand and cash equivalents comprise of short-term bank deposits with an original maturity of three months or less.

For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company's cash management.

p. Operating cycle

Operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing an their realization in cash or cash equivalents. Based on the nature of products/ activities of the Company, the management has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.

q. Share issue expenses

Share issue expenses are adjusted against the Securities premium reserve as permissible under Section 52 of the Companies Act, 2013, to the extent any balance is available for utilization in the Securities premium reserve. Share issue expenses in excess of the balance in the Securities premium reserve is expensed in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

r. Financial Instruments a. Financial assets

i. Recognition and initial measurement

Trade receivables and debt instruments issued are initially recognised when they are originated. All other financial assets are initially recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

A financial asset is initially measured at fair value. In the case of financial assets which are recognised at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL), the transaction costs are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. In other cases, the transaction costs are attributed to the acquisition value of the financial asset.

ii. Classification

On initial recognition, a financial asset is classified as measured at

- amortised cost; or

- fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL); or

- fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI) - debt investment or equity investment

Financial assets are not reclassified subsequent to their initial recognition, except if and in the period the Company changes its business model for managing financial assets.

A financial asset is measured at amortised cost if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL:

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows; and

- the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

A debt investment is measured at FVOCI if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL:

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and

- the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

On initial recognition of an equity investment that is not held for trading, the Company may irrevocably elect to present subsequent changes in the investment's fair value in OCI (designated as FVOCI - equity investment). This election is made on an investment-by- investment basis.

All financial assets not classified as measured at amortised cost or FVOCI as described above are measured at FVTPL. This includes all derivative financial assets. On initial recognition, the Company may irrevocably designate a financial asset that otherwise meets the requirements to be measured at amortised cost or at FVOCI as at FVTPL if doing so eliminates or significantly reduces an accounting mismatch that would otherwise arise.

Financial assets that are held for trading or are managed and whose performance is evaluated on a fair value basis are measured at FVTPL.

iii. Subsequent measurement and gains and losses Financial assets at FVTPL

These assets are subsequently measured at fair value. Net gains and losses, including any interest or dividend income, are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.

Financial assets at amortised cost

These assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. The amortised cost is reduced by impairment losses. Interest income, foreign exchange gains and losses and impairment are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. Any gain or loss on derecognition is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.

Debt investments at FVOCI

These assets are subsequently measured at fair value. Interest income under the effective interest method, foreign exchange gains and losses and impairment are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. Other net gains and losses are recognised in OCI. On derecognition, gains and losses accumulated in OCI are reclassified to Statement of Profit and Loss.

Equity investments at FVOCI

These assets are subsequently measured at fair value. Dividends are recognised as income in Statement of Profit and Loss unless the dividend clearly represents a recovery of part of the cost of the investment. Other net gains and losses are recognised in OCI and are not reclassified to Statement of Profit and Loss.

iv. Derecognition

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction

in which substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred or in which the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and does not retain control of the financial asset. If the Company enters into transactions whereby it transfers assets recognised on its balance sheet, but retains either all or substantially all of the risks and rewards of the transferred assets, the transferred assets are not derecognised.

v. Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the company applies Expected Credit Loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:

i. Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, debt securities,deposits, and bank balance.

ii. Trade receivables.

The application of simplified approach does not require the company to track changes in credit risk. Rather,it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.

vi. Investment in subsidiaries

Investment in subsidiaries is carried at cost in the standalone financial statements.

b. Financial liabilities

i. Recognition and initial measurement

All financial liabilities are initially recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

A financial liability is initially measured at fair value. In the case of financial liabilities which are recognised at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL), the transaction costs are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. In other cases, the transaction costs are attributed to the acquisition or issue of financial liability.

ii. Classification, subsequent measurement and gains and losses

Financial liabilities are classified as measured at amortised cost or FVTPL. A financial liability is classified as at FVTPL if it is classified as held- for-trading, or it is a derivative or it is designated as such on initial recognition. Financial liabilities at FVTPL are measured at fair value and net gains and losses, including any interest expense, are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. Other financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Interest expense and foreign exchange gains and losses are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. Any gain or loss on derecognition is also recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.

iii. Derecognition

The Company derecognises a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled, or expire.

The Company also derecognises a financial liability when its terms are modified and the cash flows under the modified terms are substantially different. In this case, a new financial liability based on the modified terms is recognised at fair value. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability extinguished and the new financial liability with modified terms is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.

iv. Offsetting

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the balance sheet when, and only when, the Company currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts and it intends either to settle them on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

v. Derivative financial instruments

The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts to hedge its interest rate risk. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value at each reporting period. Any changes therein are generally recognised in the Statement of profit and loss.

s. Earnings Per Share:

Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.